These images are from H G Hansma's present research on the origins of life
and the prior research of HGH and her co-workers on
biological applications of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).

Thank you to the many students, post docs, and co-workers who contributed to this work, including Emin Oroudjev, Magdalena Bezanilla, Paul Hansma and the members of his lab, Arkadiusz Chworos, Christine Chen, Roxana Golan, Dan Laney, Stephanie Mutz, Miriam Argaman, Ilene Auerbach, Nathan Becker, Signe Danielsen, Ricardo Garcia, Marilyn Garza, Wan Hsieh, Greg Kelderman, Kerry Kim, Lia Pietrasanta, Irene Revenko, John Sitko, Cody Sorenson, David Vie, Kim Taing, Matthias Lauer, and Kim Weirich.

Thank You NSF Logo National Science Foundation for supporting the AFM research!

Helen Greenwood Hansma, PhD
Research Biophysicist Emeritus and Associate Adjunct Professor Emeritus
Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Barbara